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Support, resources and all other services required to achieve the Expedition Objectives.  

................ when you go to war, you need to have both toilet paper and bullets at the right place at the right time....” – Tom Peters


Fuel, water and gas are the principle limiting factors driving endurance; that is the length of time that Tip Toe can proceed without support and / or the number of miles that can be driven (also called 'range'). For example, based on the manufacturers fitted tank, refuelling could be required every second day at the planned Speed of Advance (SoA). Whilst in Europe this should not be a problem even in the far north, in the remoter areas of Africa this may need to be extended to 5 days or more. The data below is an example based on a Land Rover Discovery 4 and a typical Off-Road Camper Trailer. Endurance will need to be recalculated once the vehicle and Camper have been finally selected, their tank capacities and miles per gallon / estimated consumption rates are known. These will be continually monitored during the trip. 



Vehicle fuel (diesel). Based on a planned SoA of 30 mph and 6 hrs driving per day = 180 miles per day


Vehicle Fuel Tank capacity – 82 litres / 18 imperial gallons

  • Advertised mpg = 32.5 mpg (8.7 litres per 100 kms)

  • Actual reported mpg = 29 mpg (89%) (9.7 litres per 100 kms)

  • Bingo fuel (See note 4) = 25% (quarter tank). (Refuel after using 61.5 litres (13.5 gallons))

  • Endurance = 391 miles or 2 days at planned SoA.


Trailer Diesel Tank. Heating Fuel Tank in Trailer - TBC

  • Webasto heater uses 0.24 litres per hour

  • Daily use – 5 hours (heating and hot water) 

  • Daily unrestricted use = 1.2 litres

Diesel Cooker (if fitted):

  • Webasto diesel cooker uses 0.18 litres per hour (assume connected to trailer diesel tank)

  • Daily use 75 minutes (in lieu of gas)

  • Daily use is 0.225 litres 

Extending range (fuel capacity). For some of the longer and remoter legs in Africa, it is very desirable to extend the vehicles range up to about 1000 miles to ensure we do not have to compete for (or run out of) fuel especially in the bush. By way of example only if the vehicle of choice is a Land Rover Discovery 4, an additional 75L of fuel would need to be carried. The best way of extending fuel capacity is to fit an additional fuel tank under the vehicle and connect it to the existing fuel system but this is expensive. This fuel does not need to be carried all the time so there are several other options:

  • Fuel bladders. These fold small when not in use and are typically inexpensive. They can be of any size but smaller bladders are more practical to manage and stow. A variety of brands are available; for example Desert Fox specialise in manufacturing bags for long distance motorcycle riding; they have a 20L bladder for 4WD Support Vehicles that could be ideal. Four 20L fuel bladders would extend range to over 1000 miles and endurance at the planned SoA to over 8 days in the bush.

  • Rotopax fuel containers. Lockable and lightweight, they can be setup on the side of the vehicle or trailer to minimise storage space.

  • Jerry Cans. A simple proven solution. Yellow for diesel. 4 x 20L would be required. They are bulky to store even when empty. 

  • Roof top tank. A hard walled tank secured to the roof rack of the vehicle. Roof top tanks take up precious packing space and significantly increase the vehicle's centre of gravity especially when full. Check that the roof rack is able to carry the additional weight. 

  • A 'Titan' Tank (or equivalent). Up to 12 gallons (approx 54L) can be carried in a 'Titan Tank' mounted on a rear door with the spare wheel and syphoned into the vehicle's tanks when required. LR4 does not have its spare wheel mounted on the rear door so this may not work but if a Titan Tank is fitted (+54 litres (11.8 galls)) then range would be extended to about 733 miles and endurance to about 6 days).   ​

Care needs to be taken with all of the above options to avoid spills during filling or transfer to the main tank which is typically done by syphon. Avoid contamination of the outside of the container to avoid odours, sticky exteriors etc. 

Emergency Reserve. Notwithstanding additional fuel carried to extend range, an emergency reserve of 20 litres should be carried in a Jerry Can or Desert Fox fuel bladder stored and secured as low down as possible in the vehicle or trailer and ideally between the axles although this may not be practicable.


  1. 1 x 20L diesel as an Emergency Reserve, carried in Jerry Cans mounted on the vehicle.

  2. Not using Webasto heater in trailer has an insignificant impact on endurance.

  3. Diesel cooker may be fitted instead of gas stove. (Gas will be required to run the BBQ).

  4. Bingo fuel. In this context 'Bingo fuel' is a pre-set fuel level (25% or quarter full tanks) which is the latest time vehicles should refuel. It allows a small reserve in case of unplanned events in addition to the emergency reserve. 

  5. Titan Tank. A full 12 gallon titan tank weighs approximately 45kgs. The fuel weighs about 113kgs so when full this places 158kgs on the rear door and above the tow hitch. Check the rear door can carry the additional load. This additional weight at the rear of the vehicle should be taken into consideration when towing. The rear suspension may need to be upgraded to accept the weight.

  6. Fuel Filters. It is good practice to fit additional filters to the fuel line (and a water seperator for diesel engines). Change fuel filters regularly and drain any water from the water separator. 



Fuel and water are the heaviest items that need to be carried; its easy to take too much or, perhaps worse, not enough. Notwithstanding water in tanks, a 20L jerry can of water should be carried as an emergency reserve, stored as low down in the vehicle or trailer as possible. This emergency reserve should not be included in the calculation of endurance (when to refill tanks). If leaving the Camper for a long period for example before shipping or when back at home, it is good practice to drain the tanks to ensure old water does not become stagnant. Before refilling tanks should be cleaned and filter cartridges changed. A product such as 'Milton' can be used, it should be left for approximately 24 hrs then tanks can be drained and refilled. 

If use is unrestricted, water could be a serious limiting factor (see below) but with the inclusion of bottled water for drinking, this can be fairly easily stretched to about 5 days. It will be important to top up at every opportunity and to carefully monitor usage rates giving priority to drinking and cooking. Showers will need to be reserved for days where there is surety of a water supply. Bottled water should be carried for drinking and emergencies. The quality of water is also a significant issue, especially in most African countries. It is very important that any water taken onboard must be filtered and UV treated to sterilise drinking water and killall bacteria and viruses. Tank cleaning / sterilising fluids will also need to be carried. 

Unrestricted use. For a typical camper trailer with unrestricted use, with one short daily shower per person, endurance is calculated a follows:


  • Onboard trailer water tank capacity 140L

  • Consumption: 

    • 36 litres per person per day

    • 5 litres per day per dog

    • 2 people, 2 dogs

    • Total unrestricted water use 82 litres per day

  • Water endurance unrestricted use = 140/82 = 1.7 days​

Restricted Use. Where necessary water use can be restricted to extend endurance. In Africa this is likely to

be the standard operating procedure (SOP) whilst in the bush and for longer runs between known water


  • Onboard trailer water tank capacity 140L

  • Consumption: 

    • 15 litres per person per day

    • Assume pets would not be travelling with us in these areas

    • 2 people, 0 dogs

    • Total restricted water use 30 litres per day

  • Water endurance unrestricted use = 140/30 = 4.6 days

  • Water endurance with 2 x dogs onboard (in Europe and Scandanavia) = 140/40 = 3.5 days. This should not be a problem. 


  1. The above does not include 20L emergency water stored in jerry cans (Rotopax, bladders) or any bottled water if carried onboard for drinking.

  2. Water quality is a concern, especially in southern Europe and in Africa. Although all water should be filtered on loading, it should only be drunk after filtering and / or UV treatment or boiling. 

  3. Restricted water use is based upon Relief Central's minimums standards for for refugees. 

  4. Water lifted from ponds or pools should be filtered (to 5 microns or better) before UV treatment. UV treatment rate will drive the loading rate.. 4 litres per minute is typical for a small 12V system so taking on 140L will take around 35 minutes once equipment is setup.. 

  5. Rationing. In case of extreme shortage, water may be rationed and used for drinking only. 


For unrestricted use, with 3 hot meals per day, assuming use of a single appliance (BBQ or Stove) endurance can be calculated a follows:


  • Onboard trailer butane gas bottle capacity 2 x 4.5kgs = 9kgs

  • Consumption: 

    • Regulator flow rate (1.3kg per hr) gives 210 mins cooking per bottle

    • Average cooking time per meal - 25 mins

    • 3 meals per day (75 mins cooking per day)

  • Gas endurance unrestricted use = 4 days. 



  1. Does not take into consideration cold meals or cooking on an open fire

  2. Emergency (alcohol) cooking stoves are also carried in 'Grab Bags' (see Emergency Response)

  3. This is a very conservative calculation based on gas regulator maximum flow rate. Experience suggests that it should be much better than this and better information will be sought regarding gas burner flow rates. 


In Europe there is easy access in most places to supermarkets; food (rations) carried for about 2-3 days should be plenty. In Africa it would be appropriate to extend this to about 5 days but noting that in the remoter parts of Africa and in the bush, food can normally be found in most towns or villages. Whilst it is good to support the local economy (and meet the people), its important not to 'compete' for food where it is in short supply. In these areas, additional food should be carried with a small reserve as required by the planned route and duration. In addition to storage in the trailer, the following storage is available. 


  • Fridge / freezer capacity in the trailer is 65L

  • 2 x 'Esky' Cool boxes on roof rack

  • Dry (and canned) storage as required


  1. 48 hrs personal emergency rations in Grab Bags.

  2. 72 hrs emergency rations (dry and canned) for 4 people in each vehicle.

  3. Minimum maintenance food requirement is 2100 kcals per person per day (US Aid).


ISO Containers. Probably the most secure method of shipping vehicles and campers is in an ISO container. If your vehicle is the only one in the container, it's likely that it will be loaded and sealed in your presence and presented to you on arrival inside or immediately adjacent to the docks with seals still intact. It is therefore a more secure method of shipping with less risk of theft. 


For planning purposes the internal dimensions of ISO Shipping Containers are as follows:

  • 20 ft ISO.

    • General: 5.89 x 2.35 x 2.36m. Cubic capacity 33m3 

    • High Cube: 5.89 x 2.35 x 2.69m. Cubic capacity 

  • 40 ft ISO. 

    • General: 12.05 x 2.35 x 2.36m. Cubic capacity 66m3

    • High Cube: 12.05 x 2.35 x 2.69m. Cubic capacity 76m3


To get an exact car shipping quote, the following will be required:

  • Vehicle make and model 

  • The dimensions of the vehicle and trailer - for initial planning purposes Length 10.2m x Width 2.2m x Height 2.2m assumed

  • Where shipping from and to

  • Contact details.


  1. Shared container shipping ​is cheaper than leaving empty space in a container. The disadvantage is greater risk of damage from items falling against the Vehicle / Camper.  

  2. There may be restrictions on shipping contents. 

  3. A good insurance policy is required. 

  4. Temporary fuel storage tanks will normally be required to be empty during shipping.

Roll On / Roll Off (RoRo) Shipping. Typically this is a less secure method of shipping. Vehicles are driven onto the vessel by the loading crew and secured (tied down). Thereafter keys are often left within the vehicles and the doors are unlocked.  The vehicles (and Campers) and their contents are therefore vulnerable to theft. You may wish to discuss this with you shipping company and Agent before choosing RoRo. It's important to put this risk in context though; the larger Expedition Trucks cannot fit inside ISO Containers and have been using RoRo successfully for years.

Ferries. A number of small vehicle ferries will be used in Scandinavia. These are basically self drive on / drive off. You normally retain the keys and can lock the vehicle should you need to leave it for any reason. 

Customs Broker. Employment of a registered Customs Broker should help smooth the import / export process. When shipping a vehicle by sea it will normally be shipped up to arrival port only. If the final destination is inland for example, it will be Tip Toe's responsibility to make arrangements to collect the vehicle at the port or have it delivered by our own arrangements. 

Channel Tunnel. Normally the easiest way to cross the English Channel. Self drive on / drive off with the trailer and remain in the vehicle at all times.


The real challenge with modern vehicles is fault diagnosis. Vehicles and trailers may require proprietary spare parts to fix problems. In Europe this should not be too difficult as modern garages and parts should be able to be found in most major cities. In Africa, the local engineering companies can be really ingenious but may be defeated by the vagaries of modern electronics. If necessary required proprietary parts could be ordered direct from a main dealer in the UK (or in Africa where available) and arrangements made to deliver parts by courier service to Tip Toe (for example only by Fedex or DHL). Contrary to what you are asked to believe in the TV adverts, assuming the required parts are available when ordered, this process can take about 5 days (or longer) for shipping and delivery. Further delays due to customs clearance are also possible. 

A list of tools, spare parts and associated consumables to be carried can be found under Maintenance & Repair.


Whilst spares will be carried as appropriate, consumables will be locally purchased. This may take some forward planning  but these might include: 

  • Vehicle fluids (fuel, oils, brake and clutch fluid and coolant)

  • Gas

  • Food

  • Batteries

  • Sunscreen and insect repellant

  • Stationary

  • Local network SIM Cards

  • Others ...........

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